Reducing substance by the Clinitest method is no longer performed on infants less than two years of age.
Today, all states require mandatory newborn screening for more than 30 inborn errors of metabolism. This testing detects galactosemia, which is the most common inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism. Other diseases of carbohydrate metabolism (except diabetes) have much lower prevalence or are clinically more benign than galactosemia and do not require screening of asymptomatic newborns.
Positive bilirubin dipstick results are not confirmed by an alternate method. Recommend Serum Total Bilirubin and/or Liver Function Panel (albumin, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, AST) if clinically indicated. Urine bilirubin has limited value in routine screening and does not add significant information for the vast majority of patients(1). False positives may be caused by the dietary protein metabolite indoxysulfate or metabolites of the NSAID, etodolac.
(1) Are Unexpected Positive Dipstick Urine Bilirubin Results Clinically Significant? A Retrospective Review, Kevin F. Foley, PhD, Joseph Wasserman, BS, Lab Medicine, Volume 45, Number 1, Winter 2014.